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Engine Oils
One of the duties of engine oil is to keep systems clean. A qualified engine oil incorporates soot particles in engine after separating them and prevent them from sticking on metal surfaces due to the detergent-dispersant additives in its content. It cleans soot particles adherent on metal surfaces with cleaning agent. Therefore, engine oil becomes dirty and its color turns black. If the motor oil is dirty, it is doing its job well.
0W, expresses the viscosity grade of the engine oil. 'W' comes from the word 'winter'. '0' shows the cold working conditions of the engine oil. The kinematic viscosity of a 0W engine oil at 100 °C is at least 3.8 cST, which is pumpable even at -40 °C.
Viscosity is the resistance of fluids against flowing. An oil film is formed between the two surfaces under pressure with viscosity and system parts are provided to work for long years without abrasion.
Gear Oils
It is the API classification used for gear oils. Oil that contains additives to balance excessive pressure and pulsed load for hypoid gear type differentials running under heavy conditions and that fulfills MIL-L-2105 specifications. In GL-5, there are more overpressure additives and it is generally used under heavy work conditions. Unless otherwise specified, GL-5 should not be used in places where GL-4 is recommended. Because the sulphide in overpressure additive which is present excessively in GL-5 corrodes yellow metals.
The Association of Automotive Engineers (SAE) classifies automotive gear oils according to their kinematic viscosity values ​​at 100 °C and their pumpability at low temperatures. For example, the SAE 80W-90 in an automotive gear oil '90' describes the kinematic viscosity of this gear oil at 100 °C. As this number increases oil thickens, if the number decreases oil thins. The kinematic viscosity of '90' gear oil at 100 °C is between 13.50 and 18.50 cST while the kinematic viscosity of '140' gear oil at 100 °C must be between 24.00 and 32.50 cST. The number to the left of W (Winter) determines the performance of gear oil at low temperatures. Pumping temperature of '80W' gear oil is -26 °C while pumping temperature of '75W' gear oil is -40 °C.
Grease
Greases may leak during storage and base oil also tends to oscillate. The oil leakage rate will increase over time and will vary depending on the storage temperature. The grease should ideally be stored in a cool, dry interior and the ambient temperature should not exceed 30 °C and should not be less than 0 °C. The grease must be protected from dust, dirt, moisture or rainwater, and from direct sunlight.
With manual hand pump or air pump can be printed directly into the bearing. In systems with central automatic lubrication, the grease is filled into the central chamber, the pneumatic system greases the greasing points automatically with the specified intervals.
In terms of application of lubricating with oil where it is not possible to use grease especially in ball bearings.
Anti-freeze
The most appropriate method to accurately measure the freezing point of antifreeze is the use of a refractometer. How to use refractometer:Take the refractometer by holding it from the body with the side of the oblique prism where the sample is dripped from the body and holding the cover in the closed position and place the binocular section in the eye and try to read the value in the measurement table according to the refrigerant structure you use. If the values ​​you see are not clear, you can rotate the measuring table immediately by turning the adjustment ring on the binoculars and adjust the sharpness. The value corresponding to the cross-section in the light-dark two phase in the table will give you the degree of protection. Since measurements with bomometer-like measuring devices give very variable results, it is not recommended to use antifreeze in freezing point measurement.
Antifreeze protects the cylinder block / barrel, circulation pump, hoses, gaskets and the padding from corrosion. Therefore it should be used in 4 seasons. ➢It shows resistance against freezing in winter while shows resistance against overheating in summer. ➢Antifreeze must be mixed with pure water. 50/50 mixture of water and antifreeze is the most suitable mixture. In this way the freezing point can be lowered to -38 °C.

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