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Engine Oils
Oil change kilometers of vehicles are determined only by vehicle manufacturers. It can be said that synthetic oils are more resistant than mineral oils. Therefore, whether synthetic or mineral oil is used affects engine performance and protection directly. However, if oil change kilometer is changed without approval of manufacturers of the vehicle, expected performance and protection might not obtained.
Performance of an oil can be figured out by API and ACEA values on its package. In oils developed up to today, SL (July 2001) in gasoline class and CI - 4 (2002) in diesel class indicate the highest API performance level. ACEA performance classes are indicated for passenger car by A3, for diesel light commercial vehicles by B3 and for heavy commercial vehicles by E4.
One of the duties of engine oil is to clean. A qualified engine oil incorporates soot particles in engine after separating them and prevent them from sticking on metal surfaces due to the additives in its content. It cleans soot particles adherent on metal surfaces with cleaning agent. Therefore, engine oil becomes dirty and its color turns black. If the motor oil is dirty, it is doing its job well.
Gear Oils
It is the API classification used for gear oils. In GL-5, there are more overpressure additives and it is generally used under heavy work conditions. Unless otherwise specified, GL-5 should not be used in places where GL-4 is recommended. Because the sulphide in overpressure additive which is present excessively in GL-5 corrodes yellow metals.
Gear oil is a lubricant made specifically for transmissions, transfer cases, and differentials in automobiles, trucks, and other machinery. It is of a high viscosity and usually contains organosulfur compounds. Some modern automatic transaxles (integrated transmission and differential) do not use a heavy oil at all but lubricate with the lower viscosity hydraulic fluid, which is available at pressure within the automatic transmission. Gear oils account for about 20% of the lubricant market.
Gear oil differs from engine oil mainly because of its higher viscosity. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) publishes a viscosity grading guide for gear oil, which is a different grading scale than the SAE's engine oil scale. Monograde Gear Oil The SAE rates gear oils suitable for operation at one temperature on a monograde scale. Gear oil meant for high ambient temperatures is designated by a single number (for instance, SAE 80 or SAE 250). Viscosity of these oils is measured at 212 degrees Fahrenheit; higher numbers indicate more viscous oil. Monograde gear oil with a "W" after its number (SAE 70W, SAE 80W) has a viscosity rating measured at 0 degrees Fahrenheit and is intended for low ambient temperatures.Multigrade Gear Oil Some gear oils have additives that change their viscosity at different operating temperatures. These gear oils are labeled "multigrade" by the SAE, which provides a rating for the oil's low- and high-temperature viscosity. For instance, SAE 80W-90 gear oil has a low-temperature rating of 80 and a high-temperature rating of 90.Comparing Oil Viscosity As mentioned previously, gear oil viscosity numbers are not directly comparable to engine oil viscosity numbers. For example, 75W-90 gear oil is about the same viscosity as 10W-40 engine oil; 80W-90 is about the same as 20W-40.
Grease Oils
Greases tend to bleed and release their base oils during storage. The rate of oil released from the grease will increase with time and vary based on the temperature at which it is stored. Ideally, grease should be stored in a cool, dry indoor area that does not exceed 86 degrees F (30 degrees C) and remains above 32 degrees F (0 degrees C). It is not unusual to find grease containers in storage areas that have temperatures as high as 130 degrees F (54 degrees C). These storage areas also can be exposed to contaminants such as dust, dirt, moisture or rainwater, which can severely deteriorate the quality of the grease.
Grease oil is used in rotating machine parts under high pressure and where more fluid oils are not sufficient and particularly, in roll bearings.
Grease oil is used in rotating machine parts under high pressure and where more fluid oils are not sufficient and particularly, in roll bearings.
It is added to water cooling/circulation (radiator) system of vehicle.
Anti-freeze is available in the coolant system of vehicle in all seasons.
A refractometer should be used to measure anti-freeze performance accurately. How to Use Refractometer: Grab the refrectometer body so that the side with tilted prism where the sample at the end is poured dropwise is held toward the light and when the cover is in closed position, hold the binocular part of the device to your eyes and try to read the value in the measurement table according to the type of coolant you use. If the values are not clear, you may adjust the sharpness by rotating the adjustment ring immediately above the binoculars and turning the measurement table to the right or left. The value that corresponds to the section in two phases of light-dark will show you the degree of protection.

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